Geneabloggers has had a World War I challenge. I thought it a good opportunity to discuss a few World War I tidbits I’d gathered a long time ago that have been sitting on my laptop ignored. While I work on my photos of Calvary, I will often research the person whose grave I’ve photographed. No particular reason, I just want to get to “know” those persons–who they were, what they may have experienced, how (or if) there is some possible connection to my family. In today’s post, I am in no way related to those I’ll be speaking of. But I do feel as if they could be ancestors due to their links to Toledo’s Polonia and our shared experiences and extended families.

Some time ago, I had come across Tony Scymanski via a newsclipping from the Toledo News Bee dated January 16, 1919. Tony had enlisted into the US Army at the age of 21. Tony was a member of the 325 Infantry, 82nd Division, having seen action in Argonne. He had written home to his brother, Frank. A reporter got a hold of the letter he had written and placed a piece on Tony in the News Bee:

Tony Scymanski Wounded Twice

Twenty-two days on the field of battle, and only two slight wounds as a result, is the story of Tony Scymanski, who writes to his brother Frank, of Blade st., to say he has fully recovered and hopes that the rumors of an early sailing come true. Scymanski was in the drive thru Argonne, and proud of the record of his division, the 82nd.

“Imagine how I feel,” he says, “when I walk down the street and the French say, ‘there goes a soldier that fought  hard.’ “

Newsclipping Toledo News Bee January 6, 1919 Tony Scymanski Wounded Twice

Newsclipping from Toledo News Bee January 6, 1919 Tony Scymanski

Tony was born in Mt. Pleasant, Pennsylvania to Peter Szymanski and Mary Pieczynski. (I am unsure of where the name change had crept in. His death is recorded as Szymanski but the newsclipping and his stone reads Scymanski.) Tony did return to Toledo to gain employment as an rail inspector for Pere-Marquette and married Mary Pieczynski.

Tony died in 1948 and is buried in Calvary Cemetery.

Tony Scymanski Veteran Gravestone Calvary Cemetery

Tony Scymanski Veteran Gravestone Calvary Cemetery

Another clipping I’d come across was dated March 7, 1918 about Alois Nowicki, who also was writing home to his brother, also named Frank.

Life In France is Like Camping

“Life here is like camping at Point Place,” writes Alois Nowicki of 1159 Blum st., from France, to his brother, Attorney Frank S. Nowicki. Sam Nowicki, another brother, is with the National Army, and Casimir Nowicki, a third brother, is with an aviation section about to leave for France.

Toledo News Bee Clipping March 7, 1918 Alois Nowicki "Life in France Like Camping"

Toledo News Bee Clipping March 7, 1918 Alois Nowicki

I’m not certain that war time living would be like “camping at Point Place”–Point Place at that time was a sort of middle class resort area in Toledo with beaches and boats and fishing. Maybe Alois did not want to focus on the reality of Argonne, but wrote to reassure his family that he did find something to provide him with a sense of home, however fleeting? Alois certainly did not seem to have an easy time of of it. Per a Veterans Administration Hospital record from the hospital located in Dayton, Ohio, Alois was admitted there for pulmonary tuberculosis in 1925 and was discharged in 1927. By reading this record, one can see that he was admitted to the US Army through Camp Sherman near Chillicothe, Ohio. Camp Sherman was one of about 32 soldier training sites for World War I, and was a significant training site. Nearly 125,000 soldiers had been trained there. In fact, it was the third largest training camp at the time. It suffered a hard hit in late 1918 when the Spanish influenza epidemic hit when over 5,600 men were infected and well over 1,700 died in camp. A number of Toledo soldiers were inducted and trained through Camp Sherman.

Alois Nowicki Veteran's Administration Record

Alois Nowicki Veteran’s Administration Record

The 1930 census places Alois in Pima County, Arizona with a wife, Hedwina and a daughter, Jean (who was born in Arizona). This census record is curious. It reflects no occupation or possible income source for Alois. This indicates to me perhaps Alois never recovered from tuberculosis and was residing there for possible health benefits. (Click the snippet to open in a new tab and enlarge.)

Alois Nowicki 1930 Census Pima County Arizona

Alois Nowicki 1930 Census Pima County Arizona

Alois died March 31, 1938. I have not found whether he died in Arizona or in Ohio. Nor have I yet located his grave at Calvary. But his wife did apply for a veteran’s headstone and the address provided was in Toledo.

Alois Nowicki Veternas Gravestone Record

Alois Nowicki Veterans Gravestone Record

Yesterday’s mystery seems to have been halfway cleared up. The wonders of social networking! A cousin through my dad’s family contacted me and her mom looked at the photo. Verdict was the two on the left were my paternal grandparents, Walter and Helena. I studied them against a photo of them taken in the backyard of the house they owned on Evesham, and I’m convinced it is them. Yesterday’s photo I would think was probably taken before Walter and Helena lived on Evesham. The house on Evesham was bought sometimes in the 1930s as the 1930 census shows them living a few blocks away in the first home they purchased at 622 Woodstock.

Walter and Helena Mierzejewski, Evesham

Walter and Helena Mierzejewski, Evesham

Now, the other half of yesterday’s mystery is who are the man and woman on the right? I am wondering whether it a sibling and spouse? A hunch I have, and it’s a long shot, is if it is Walter’s brother, Marcin or Marzel. Some oral history and some documented fact: Marcin did come to the US a few times with Walter. I had been able to document a few of his moves through manifests. The manifest below (see lines 11 and 12) is particularly intriguing to me as they are each heading to Masschusetts first–Wladyslaw to New Bedford and Marcin to Pittsfield. This is particularly interesting as there is quite a few Mierzejewskis in that region and many Mierzejewskis traveled westward through New England to Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan.

http://dmcmanus.biz/family/marzel_mierzejewski_11251909.pdf

Wladyslaw is stating that his contact in Poland is his wife, Helena, who lives in Borowiec, Lomza. Marcin is stating that his contact is his sister-in-law.

There are other miscellaneous manifests, from 1903 and 1907 from Hamburg that also show Walter and Marcel traveling to the US. Unfortunately, I have not yet located the manifests that indicate their arrival at a US port yet. So, I am fairly certain Walter and Marcin traveled together and separately for work in the US for a while prior to Walter and Helena permanently settling in Ohio in 1923.

The oral part of this story is that Marcin did not like living in the US and he eventually returned to Poland to remain permanently where he married a woman named Czeszlawa, in 1914. He died in Tomasz in 1965. I do know of a story that he did come to the US to visit Helena and Walter at least once. Walter died in 1946, so the visit would have had to occur prior to 1946. If I study both of these pictures, it’s clear to me that the two men are related in some fashion. While one has a prominent moustache, their facial features are very much alike: very round faces, downward slopes of the nose, and similar mouth and jaw features. Hopefully, by putting this out “there” someone can identify and maybe confirm that the two persons to the right are Marcin and his wife Czeszlawa.

 

Here is a photo found in some old belongings of my mother. There is no clue to who these four people are. I can’t even say if they are part of my mom’s family or my dad’s family. I do not recognize any of these people. No idea of the date the photo was taken. If anyone may recognize a face here, please let me know.

unknown_4

Recently, I had come across a burial for Waclaw Gawronski and ended up doing a bit of research on him. He was an interesting character, whose history included a stint as president and editor-in-chief of the Ameryka Echo in Toledo.

As a child, I vaguely remembered a newspaper called the “Ameryka Echo” which was written for and by Poles. However, I don’t remember reading it myself (I never did learn Polish other than a handful of words and knowing how to use my handy dandy well-worn Polish-English dictionary.) In fact, I don’t remember if my parents had ever read it. I suspect they may have, but I don’t think I remember seeing it in the home. I do remember seeing it for sale occasionally in news shops in downtown Toledo as a kid. The newspaper suspended publication in 1971. At that time, I would have been more interested in the funny pages rather than any actual news or editorial pieces.

The Ameryka Echo had an interesting history. Started in Toledo by A.A. Paryski in 1889, it was a cultural newspaper that was often pro-labor. Paryski had used his publishing corporation to also publish books and other materials on a wide range of subjects from religion and anti-Catholicism to home economics to pulp fiction. He had his admirers and detractors, detractors who believed he was making profit off of illiterate or uneducated immigrants. But his diversified subject matter and the low cost of these publications is precisely what drew his audiences. For a small sum and with language and matter geared toward the Polish immigrant, he was able to sell what he believed was valuable editorial and educational information. The Ameryka Echo was published in Toledo and Chicago, reaching a wide immigrant audience. With this audience, letters to the editor were written (often in Polish) and published.

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities has a short history and inventory of publications of A.A. Paryski and the Ameryka Echo here.

Late last year, Lexington Books had published Letters from Readers in the Polish American Press, 1902 – 1969: A Corner for Everyone, written by Anna D. Jaroszynska-Kirchman and Theodore L. Zawistowski. A preview of the book can be obtained through Google Books. The letters are often utterly fascinating to read: there are debates on Polish-American views on labor movements and strikes, the Cold War, political events in Poland, the Roman Catholic Church, and US government. These letters reflect what I felt was an astoundingly well-informed audience who were well able to express their views, hardly the “illiterate” or “uneducated” that Paryski’s detractors called them.

Issues of the Ameryka Echo are on microfilm, held at Bowling Green State University.

Getting back to Waclaw Gawronski, it seemed as if we may have had a man of some importance within the Toledo Polish community. Not only was he president and editor of the Ameryka Echo, he was Consul of the Republic of Poland in France and Consul General in Berlin and Chicago before he lived in Toledo. Mr. Gawronski lived in Toledo from about 1939 to 1961, moving back to Chicago. During his time in Toledo, he was also founder of the Toledo Polish Arts Club. He died 27 March 1979 in Chicago. His obit is below.

Waclaw Gawronski

Ameryka-Echo Editor, Former Polish Consul

Waclaw M. Gawronski, 86, of Chicago, formerly of the 2700 block of Collingwood Boulevard, retired Polish language journalist and former Polish consul,  died Tuesday in a Chicago hospital.

Mr. Gawronski was president and editor-in-chief of the Ameryka-Echo in Toledo in the late 1950s.

He moved to Chicago in 1961 after the newspaper, then considered one of the foremost foreign-language publication in America, ceased publication here.

He was also a writer for Polish-language newspapers in Chicago, Cleveland, and Detroit, and was founder of the Polish Arts Club of Toledo.

He held a doctor of law degree from the King John Casimer University, Lwow, Poland.

Mr. Gawronski was consul of the Republic of Poland in France and consul general in Berlin and Chicago before moving to Toledo in 1939.

His wife, Halina, survives.

Services will be at 10 a.m. Thursday in St. Stanislaus Church, Toledo.

There will be no visitation.

The family requests that any tributes be in the form of contributions to the Heart Association.

Waclaw Gawronski Toledo Blade Obituary 27 March 1979

Waclaw Gawronski Toledo Blade Obituary 27 March 1979

Mr. Gawronski is buried in Calvary Cemetery, alongside his first wife, Zofia.

Waclaw and Zofia Gawonski

Waclaw and Zofia Gawonski

 

 

I was recently working on the backlog of Calvary Cemetery photos that I snapped last summer and fall. Sometimes while at the cemetery, I get so intent on making sure I get a decent shot (is the sun too high and casting shadows? are my batteries dying? how can I get the best contrast?) that I sometimes do not recognize that I’ve found someone I am related to. I then go through the photos weeks and months later after downloading them from my cameras and say to myself “holy Toledo–I think I’m related.”

So, here are my latest discoveries. I found a “new” child of Michał Mruk and Margaretha Plenzler as well as a daughter of Joseph Erdman and Marianna Przybylski. Margaretha was a a sibling to my great-grandfather, Joseph Plenzler. She and Michał had emigrated to the US 1884. Marianna was a daughter of my great-grandparents, Andrezj and Francziska Rochowiak, and I had located her daughter Eleanor Jaroszewski.

When I did the original research on the Mruk family, I had located a manifest for the ship Rhaetia sailing from Hamburg that listed the Mruk family: Michał and Margaretha and children Tekla, Stanislaus, Kazmierz, Marianne, and a name written as Kath.a. I was unsure who this last child listed on the manifest was. I searched for a Katarzyna, Katherina, and other variants of the name Catherine or Katarzyna but had no luck. In the back of my mind, I thought the child died during or after the voyage as the 1900 census that enumerates the Mruk family indicates that of the marriage, 16 children were born and 9 were surviving. Below are the manifest and the 1900 census. (Click to open in a new browser window and enlarge.)

Image

1884 Manifest from Hamburg Mruk Family

Mruk Family 1900 Census

Mruk Family 1900 Census

Looking at the scanned manifest, it appears as if “Kath.a.” is struck off the manifest but it’s difficult to tell if it was a deliberate edit or damage due to folding and age of the sheet. While that first indicated to me the possibility that the child did not survive the voyage, the data on the 1900 census really did not provide me with confirmation either way–if the child survived or died.  She was not listed in the 1900 census for the Mruk family and I was unable to locate her in any census data that I reviewed within the Toledo area. “Kath.a.” is indicated as having been born about 1880, so she was four years old at the time of the voyage per the manifest. In 1900, she was about 20 years old and of age to marry or perhaps obtain work as a domestic somewhere else.

The eldest Mruk child that I can verify is Tekla, born in 1873. Her parents were married in November 1866, so there is a span of about seven years without children. More on Tekla is here. But the 1900 census data is interesting to note that Margaretha reported that she had a total of 16 children with 9 surviving. This means that several children were born to the Mruks died in Poland prior to the Mruk family’s emigration. I have been able to verify that two children, Joseph and Michael had died prior to the 1900 census. Michael had been born in Wiorek on 30 September 1881, baptized 02 October 1881. We also have a death date for him, note that the baptismal record from Wiorek has a cross in front of the record, this is a common indication used by priests that the child had died. Go to the second page of the record and notice that there is a note that says “obit. 12/7/82.” So Michael died at about the age of 3 months. Joseph was born in Toledo on 3 March 1896 and died on 13 September 1896.

I had little else to work with for “Kath.a.” until I had come across the gravestones for a Kathryn and George Staniszewski.

George Staniszewski, Calvary gravestone photo

George Staniszewski, Calvary Cemetery gravestone photo

Kathryn Staniszewski, Calvary gravestone photo

Kathryn Staniszewski, Calvary Cemetery gravestone photo

I looked at the dates of death on the stones and knew it would be a bit troublesome to verify the exact date of death because Ohio death certificates are only available from about 1903 through 1953 and past experience had told me that locating data within the Social Security death index has been spotty during the 1950s decade–often due to the fact that many elderly who died during that period likely had not obtained a Social Security Number. Additionally, I’ve noticed quite a few transcription errors with the Ohio death index on familysearch.org. So, I got lucky and found birth and marriage records for a Stanley Staniszewski whose parents were George Staniszewski and Kate Mruk. I thought immediately “Voila!” Stanley was born in 1903. I then located another child whose parents were George Staniszewski and Kate Mruk–this child was named John and he was born in 1902. So, digging into George a bit further, I learned via the 1910 census that he did not emigrate to the US until 1900. I suspect it would have been in the second half of the year 1900 because the census for 1900 was taken in June of that year and I was unable to locate a 1900 census that mentioned George.

I have not yet found a marriage record of George and Kate, but logic tells us that they would have married sometime between late 1900 to about early 1902.

Further investigation (all of about 10 minutes!) led me to Kate (Kathryn’s) obituary and it confirms she was indeed a child of Michał and Margaretha as it provides names of her surviving brothers (Martin and Jack, also known as John Jacob) and sister (Praxeda, also known as Priscilla) Gurzynski. See the obituary below, published 12 October 1965.

Kathryn Staniszewski Toledo Blade Obituary 12 October 1965

Kathryn Staniszewski Toledo Blade Obituary 12 October 1965

Obituary transcription below:

Kathryn Staniszewski

Mrs. Kathryn Staniszewski, 86, of 2626 Midwood Ave., died yesterday in her home.

Born in Poland, Mrs. Staniszewski lived in Toledo most of her life. She was a member of the Polish National Alliance.

Surviving are a daughter, Mrs. Charlotte Clark; sons, John and Stanley, all of Toledo, and Walter, of Clackamas, Ore.; sister, Mrs. Priscilla Gurzynski, and brothers, Martin and Jack Mruk, all of Toledo, and one granddaughter.

Services will be Thursday at 9:30 a.m. in Gesu Church, with burial in Calvary Cemetery. The Rosary will be recited at 7:30 p.m. and 8 p.m. tomorrow in the Sujkowski Mortuary.

The second discovery I made within my photo backlog was for Eleanor Erdman Jaroszewski. I knew she had married Conrad Jaroszewski but I did not realize I had found their grave until going through my photos. Conrad had been married prior to Eleanor, to a woman named Helen Sabiniewicz. Conrad and Helen had a son named Thadeus. The photo of the family grave plot is below.

Jaroszewski Family Calvary gravestone photo

Jaroszewski Family Calvary Cemetery gravestone photo

Helen’s parents, Jozef and Josephine, are on the opposite side of the stone. See below.

Jozef and Josephine Sabiniewicz, Calvary gravestone photo

Jozef and Josephine Sabiniewicz, Calvary Cemetery gravestone photo

So…at work, they’ve been going on and on about women’s history month. Since I worked for a defense contractor, it’s been interesting learning about women who’ve climbed the ranks through the military and have become four star generals, like Ann Dunwoody. With that in mind, I started wondering “how to tie that theme into genealogy?” I really have no famous relatives, my ancestors were farmers and carpenters from Poland. My ancestral kinswomen fit the stereotype that 1970s feminists railed against: they stayed home and had a lot of babies and took care of the house and family. Yet, these women were intelligent, strong, and capable. I viewed them in the context into which they were born.

The more I pondered that situation, the more I came to realize that women like my mother, my grandmothers, and my great-grandmothers really were women to admire and to see them from positions of strength and strong character rather than women who were held back or demeaned because of their traditional ways of life or religious beliefs.

Both of my maternal great-grandmothers traveled here to the United States with small children in tow. They came here to follow their husbands and to practice their religious faith in freedom. That’s not a small accomplishment considering their context: late 1870s or early 1880s Germany (Poland). 1871, Bismark launches his Kulturkampf. This alienates many Catholics, of whom were my great-grandparents. Their priests were imprisoned or exiled. Jesuits were being expelled. This kerfuffle dies down a bit in 1878 when Leo XIII becomes pope–Pope Leo negotiates with Bismark to rid Germany of the most anti-Catholic laws; but at the same time, there was a great worldwide depression occurring. A lot of political fingerpointing happens. Under Bismark, “Germanification” starts to occur about the same time as the depression happens. Bismark then begins hostile policies against Poles–he compares the the Polish population to animals that must be shot and he privately confesses that he would like to exterminate them.

So, there’s the reasons my great-grandparents came here. However, from what I am able to discern, it seems as if at least Eva Plenzler came here by herself with her first two sons, Martin and Joseph. Her husband, Joseph likely was here already. The manifest I located for Eva to sail from Hamburg provides only her name and her sons’ names. Imagine a young woman of possibly 25 to 28 years of age with two small children, sailing to an unknown country, not knowing English, and hoping to meet her husband at some unknown port. Joseph needed work to support his family. Eva supports his travel to the United States and follows. To me, that most certainly indicates a leap of faith and a strong woman to be able to cross an ocean alone with small children!

And then I thought of my paternal grandmother, Helena. She married a man, Wladyslaw, who comes and goes between Poland and the United States a few times. They have a small farm that supports them, they mill wheat and have a few animals to provide milk. Wladyslaw is working in the United States, sending home money and helping to get others into the United States in the period between the two World Wars. Helena experiences some frightening occurrences: before or about 1922, the farm is burned by an invading White Russian army. Helena flees the farm to the home of an elderly relative. This relative dies while Helena is there with her children and she must tend to the burial. I am unsure of where Wladyslaw is at this point–if he is still in the United States or in Poland. (A big question I have–would he have been able to travel during the period of the Russian Revolution? Oral history has also told us that that the White Army was trying to force men from the region into their Army, so possibly my grandfather was attempting to evade them.)

However, Helena manages to take care of the burial and await her husband. They embark on a ship to the United States from Cophenhagen–I have a manifest that enumerates her, Wladyslaw, and my aunt and uncle. Imagine the courage and stamina of a young mother to have to cope with the fear of an invasion and burning of her home, travel to a relative’s home (likely by foot or horse) for shelter, tend to that dying relative, and await a husband to make the decision to travel from near Tomasze to Copenhagen. Again, oral history here, but I have been told part of the journey from Poland to Copenhagen was on foot. This during a period of famine and great upheaval. Poland had just become a sovereign nation, again, in 1918. Political culture in Poland was difficult–censorship, intrigue, and the need to merge together the three former partitions: German, Austrian, and Russian. So there were many external forces driving my grandparents out of Poland. For my grandmother to have successfully come here after awaiting her husband and a difficult journey to Copenhagen is difficult for me to comprehend.

Here’s to the women who have come before us, enduring journeys and great uncertainties. While it’s wonderful to know what publicly powerful women like Ann Dunwoody have taught us and to honor their great example, we shouldn’t neglect or forget those with humbler roots. Those women, without whom we would not be here and who taught us great faith through their experiences and journeys.

A newsclipping I found while researching Toledo Blade Obituaries. Article was published Saturday October 19, 1957. Nearly 60 years ago, it seems as if the Toledo inner city Catholic parishes began their decline and losing population to the suburbs.

St. Anthony’s Catholic Church to Mark 75th Anniversary

Bishop Rehring Will Have Part In Thanksgiving Mass Tomorrow

The 75th anniversary celebration of St. Anthony’s Catholic Church, famous for its 265-foot spire, one of the tallest on the city’s horizon, will open with a Mass of thanksgiving tomorrow at 9:30 a.m. Bishop George J. Rehring will take part in the ceremony.

Msgr. Francis S. Legowski, pastor for more than 35 years, will preach. A banquet will follow at the Wroblewski American Legion hall, 1274 Nebraska Ave. Steve Czolgosz is head of the jubilee celebration.

The celebration will conclude with an additional special Mass Nov. 10.

The parish was founded in 1881, with the first building opened for worship on Nov. 12, 1882.

The parish is the home church of nine priests, including the Rev. Anthony S. Pietrykowski, pastor of St. Hedwig’s parish. Original members of the parish consisted mostly of Polish immigrants who came to America during the decade preceding establishment of the church.

Once the largest in the diocese with 7,500 parishioners, the parish has dwindled numerically because of the establishment of nearby Catholic churches, and the trend among younger families toward suburban living. The latest diocesan year book lists 2,895 members.

st_anthony_75_anniversary

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